Common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

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8 Sep 2016 - General

There are a variety of different aetiology of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Sometime, the patient's history of presenting complaint and previous background medical history can give us some clues about the cause of the upper GI bleeding. For example, if a patient with background history of liver cirrhosis with previous oesophageal varices, presented with large volume haematemesis, then the most likely cause will be oesophageal varices bleed. Duodenal ulcer remains the most common cause of upper GI bleeding. Other causes of upper GI bleeding are, gasric ulcer, gastric erosions, ulcerative reflux oesophagitis, oesophageal varices, gastric varices, mallory-weiss tears, dieulafoy lession, gastric antral vascular ectasia, gastric cancer, portal hypertensive gastropathy, angiodysplasia, and aortoenteric fistula.

Managing upper GI bleeding in children is particularly challenging. The volume of blood that children has is very little compared to adult patients and it is difficult to estimate the blood loss. When there is upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the blood can come out from the mouth with vomiting as haematenesis, but it is possible to loose an eqaul or often more amount of blood from the lower gastrointestinal tract. Features of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal tract like malena takes more ...
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